Brain, Mind and Consciousness: Advances in Neuroscience Research
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The Mind's Eye. The Neuroscience of Hallucinations. Renaud Jardri. The Myth of Executive Functioning. Leonard F. Your Conscious Mind. New Scientist. Visual Masking. Talis Bachmann.
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Summary of Topics in the Article
Brain Theory. Michael S. Federico E. Vinoth Jagaroo. Neuroscience for Clinicians. Annellen M. Computational Models of Brain and Behavior.
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Ahmed A. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation of Childhood Brain Injury. Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation. Nikolai Axmacher. Latent Inhibition and Its Neural Substrates. Nestor Schmajuk. Juan Y. Computational Neurology and Psychiatry. Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Stanislas Dehaene. Computational Neuroscience of Drug Addiction. Boris Gutkin. Neuropsychological Toxicology. David E. Sleep and Brain Activity. Marcos G. First and foremost requisite for biomedical research involving human subjects is obtaining their consent to take part in the research.
Another important ethical concern regarding the biomedical and neuroscience research in human subjects is hiding the reasons for research and non- responsible communication of research results 5. Regarding the collection of various kind of samples i. This entire dependable framework would reflect fundamental role of scientific integrity regarding social responsibilities pertaining to the eventual use of neuroscience knowledge, and highlights the importance of self-reflection in research and training of researchers 5.
There is a need to explore, communicate and reveal the social and ethical implications within the frameworks of neuroethics and neuropsychopharmacology. Prominent issues stem out when new drugs are tested and the experiments incite ethical questions. Because the treatment affects CNS, e side effects might be very unique and sometimes they might also be severe such as psychiatric disorders such as mood changes, depression, anxiety and impaired cognition Further to quote, pharmacological cognitive enhancers PCEs are used to improve cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, memory and planning in patients with impairments in cognition resulting from traumatic brain injury TBI or from neuropsychiatric disorders Evidence suggests that PCEs are also being used as cognitive enhancers by healthy people and as the use of these drugs becomes very popular in the healthy population there is an emerging need to consider the current and future neuroethical concerns These concerns include issues such as obtaining relevant empirical data, monitoring short- and long-term effectiveness, side-effects, and initiation of accurate surveys to determine current patterns and quantity of usage of PCE drugs by patients and healthy people The debate was focused on helping cognitively disabled people and also on the issue of 'cosmetic neurology', where people use these enhancers not because of a medical need, but because they want to use them Challengers of cosmetic pharmacology believe that such drug usage is unethical and that the concept of cosmetic pharmacology is a manifestation of naive consumerism and moral enrichment might be more effective in reducing the health inequalities From a socio-ethical view other means of enhancing cognition such as education, physical exercise 31 , healthy diet, yoga and meditation should be used by the patients and healthy adults.
The Status and Future of Consciousness Research
Issues concerning modern genetics, raise serious questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity On the other hand some issues pertaining to genetic studies may seem a bit peripheral to clinical practice, but they have unanticipated effects upon the care of patients with mental illnesses Increasing attention is being paid to the ethical issues in contemporary neuroscience as applied to genetics and neuroimaging Imaging genetics has emerged as a powerful and sensitive approach to the study of functional genetic variations and responses from brain and nervous system in various psychiatric and neurological disorders Neuroimaging-genetic paradigms are a new approaches to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of cognitive deficits in neurological as well as in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia 35 which feeds the argument that the ethical issues are very important in light of cumulative power of imaging genetics.
Parallel to the clinical features, there are additional neuroethics features that have new implications for health care, justice, and policy making in genetic studies Furthermore, genetic studies like determining the prevalence of gene polymorphism in a given population and studying familial patterns of inheritance of various neurological disorders also involves collection of blood samples from human subjects for extracting their DNA as a requisite for genetic analysis.
These types of genetic studies should be accompanied safeguarding the moral and ethical concerns for human subjects by enrolling them only after getting their informed consent and eventually by honest reporting of results. The field of neuroethics has emerged as a novel branch of bioethics that deals with ethical challenges of advancements in neuroscience and neuro-technology.
This branch considers a number of issues created by progressions in knowledge and development of new techniques in the field of basic and clinical neuroscience research and treatment. Presently, two general categories of neuroethical issues can be considered including those emerging from what is to be done and what is already evident. Although currently neuroethics is practically oriented in a way that it not only includes empirical findings from neuroscience but also explores novel applications within neuroscience. However, socio-moral and ethico-legal contexts are rather neglected, which could be a subject of future approaches of neuroethics in basic and clinical neuroscience research as well as treatment.
Hence, more studies are needed to address these concerns. Aggarwal NK, Ford E. The neuroethics and neurolaw of brain injury. Behav Sci Law. Northoff G.
Untapped ethical resources for neurodegeneration research. BMC Med Ethics. Figueroa G. Rev Med Chil. Racine E, Illes J. Neuroethical responsibilities.
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