ESports Yearbook 2009
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New citations to this author. New articles related to this author's research. Email address for updates. Appadurai, A. Bogost, I. How to do things with videogames. Bornemark, O. Success factors for e-sport games. In: Suna Bensch, S. Chae, H.
An exploratory research on categorizing e-sports as one of the sports. Journal of Korea Game Society, 11 3 , Coakley, J. Sports and children: Are organized programs worth the effort. Sport in society: issues and controversies. New York: McGraw Hill, Colucci, M. Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal, 33 1 , Crawford, G.
More than a game: Sports-themed video games and player narratives. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26, 50— CSGO Dietz-Uhler, B. Sex differences in sport fan behavior and reasons for being a sport fan. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23 3 , Eichberg, H. Nordic sports—from social movements via emotional to bodily movement—and back again?. Sport in Society, 13 4 , Top countries History navigation. Ferrari, S. In: Pearce, C. Griffiths, M. Breaking the stereotype: The case of online gaming.
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Galloway, A. Gaming: essays on algorithmic culture 1st ed. Guttmann, A. From ritual to record: The nature of modern sports. Hakalax, J.
Hamari, J. What is eSports and why do People watch it? Hamilton, W. In: Lukosch, S. Hope, A. The evolution of the electronic sports entertainment industry and its popularity. In: Sharp, J. In some cases, governmental support helped fan the growth of these industries. Against this backdrop featuring political initiatives aimed at boosting the video gaming industry, the examples thus propose a cultural shift in attitudes toward video games Peichi, It provides grounds to assume that parents and children may harbour receptive attitudes towards video games, which may be further reinforced by the potential profitability of related professions.
Rather, the bulk of research addressing parental perceptions of video games has narrowly focused upon worries over the potential negative effects of video gaming Granic, et al. They center around the displacement effect of time children should be spending time on more beneficial activities such as studying, exercising or reading , game content, pathological video game usage video game addiction , poor academic performance and inadequate social skills Gentile, ; Gentile, et al.
Although there has yet to be a consensus on the repercussions of video gaming, certain risk factors have nonetheless been identified. Studies spanning across various countries, including the United States and Singapore, have shown that eight—nine percent of gamers are diagnosed as pathological, averaging out with more than 37 gaming hours per week Choo, et al.
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This was starkly contrasted against the enhanced social and cognitive skills that video gaming was argued to benefit players with. Alternative studies in fact observed that video games equipped children with beneficial skills in a fashion similar to that of formal education. First person shooter FPS games, in particular, were found to improve cognitive abilities such as multi-tasking, visual short-term memory, and spatial skills Green and Bavalier, ; Uttal, et al.
It is pertinent to note that the benefits associated with video games are indicative of the skills parents hope to cultivate in their children, as they deem these skills to be integral in navigating through daily life and academia Granic, et al. The benefits of video games notwithstanding, video gaming careers remain ill-suited as long-term career options Granic, et al. Existing literature writes that parents dismiss video gaming as a career prospect, regardless of their impressions of video games.
On this continuum, parents have consistently regarded video games to be a waste of time, with little career prospects and would rather their children spend time engaging in productive activities such as studying, playing sports, and reading Jiow, et al. Accompanying the surge in demand for video games, the number of game developers entering the market either independently or through major companies has increased dramatically Peichi, In the creation of games, the game designer is but one party in a team effort.
Typically, game designers engage in project-based work packed with a myriad of challenges. These difficulties include excessive and undercompensated working hours and burnouts, to name a few Legault and Ouellet, ; Legault and Weststar, , as cited in Weststar, Often times, such downsides and job hazards are veiled by the glamour of potential profitability and prestige attached to games design. To this end, the arduous work schedules of game designers often fail to parallel their wages, for it was found that the income of a game designer was the second lowest in the industry, outranking only their colleagues in quality assurance Gamasutra, These salaries reflect triple-A game development characteristics, where games are allocated huge budgets and produced by major companies such as Electronic Arts EA , Valve and Blizzard.
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In terms of physical toll, game designers are easy victims to burnouts due to the fast-paced nature of their projects. As Weststar highlights, the video gaming industry is denoted by the rapid transition of individuals between projects in short spans of time. To this, Edwards, et al. Nonetheless, game designers need not be restricted to a company or organization, as they are free to create independent business opportunities as indie game developers.
According to Gamasutra , indie game developers experience major fluctuations in yearly income since they work independently or within a small team to create video games. The rise of casual gaming commonly manifesting through mobile phone applications likewise provides another potential platform for success to companies and indie developers. As opposed to computer games, mobile games require significantly less expertise and budget for products with a strong selling point Peichi, With success within easier reach, the gaming market in Asia flourished.
In South Korea alone, approximately 1, out of 1, gaming companies are small developers, although it is the top five companies that rake in approximately 70 percent of the total market revenue Peichi, While the industry in Singapore has not grown as quickly as in South Korea, it has as many as 50 gaming companies currently in existence Vinova, One such company, Mikoishi, has even ventured beyond local borders into the larger Asian market by collaborating with South Korean distributor Nexon to access the mobile gaming market in South Korea Peichi, Nexon subsequently launched its pioneer made-in-Singapore game called Dropcast for Nintendo in Peichi, The past decade has witnessed a massive expansion of the gaming sector in Singapore.
With this expansion came jobs, although they were not without obstacles. Still, it appears that cultural and economic shifts in the local video gaming archipelago have enhanced the perceived stability and appeal of gaming-related professions. This sums up to an estimated 22 million e-sports competitors and pro-gamers in the competitive gaming sector Hilvoorde, In addition to such events, major video gaming companies have also begun hosting major professional gaming tournaments, complete with prize pools that run in the millions.
In the wake of this normalisation follows a potential future for some to pursue a career in professional gaming. Similar to sports teams, pro-gamers may be a part of game clans. Personal branding for game clans are also created to attract the support of fans during online or LAN events.
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Like the tournaments, game clans tend to be sponsored by major brands like Microsoft and Hewlett Packard, thus fueling the competitive ethos of video games Hutchins, ; Seo, ; Taylor, Spectatorship in e-sports has also increased exponentially, as competitive games are streamed through online sites such as YouTube and Twitch, in lieu of television. Through such channels, e-sports events appeal to a wider audience not simply because of the added convenience, but particularly because online platforms have the effect of integrating the audience into the game, creating the sensation of viewing the event first-hand even without being physically present.
On a related note, Seo noted that high levels of spectatorship have led to the idolization of professional gamers. As epitomized in South Korea, pro-gamers are placed on the same pedestal as celebrities and they earn the respect of the general public for their unique expertise Jin and Chee, , as cited in Szablewicz, Additionally, spectators also concentrate on knowledge acquisition, collecting information about teams and tactics, as well as copying and reproducing the same strategies utilized by professional gamers in their own games Hamari and Sjoblom, In this sense, spectatorship in e-sports appears to be key in asserting its position as an authentic sport Ditmarsch, ; Hutchins, ; Seo, In general, concerns over the financial viability of pro-gaming professions are recurrent.
The fame and fortune attached to stereotypical images of pro-gamers are unfortunately only true for a handful of individuals. Co-founder of Major League Gaming MLG , Sundance Giovanni, admitted to this, as only 40 of the current batch of pro-gamers lead a steady life in this profession Ketchum, However, the emergence of YouTube has somewhat acted as a counter-weight to the lack of steady income within the pro-gaming sector. YouTube provides a possible revenue source for both pro-gamers and non-pro-gamers that is off the beaten track Kim, As one of the most widely-accessed video-sharing platforms, YouTube is a common ground for people to post and view videos Lavaveshkul, This allows potential YouTubers individuals who post self-generated content to access a large audience and use them as a stepping stone towards fame.
This is the case for pro-gaming events, where pro-gaming events capitalise upon the market by streaming their competition or posting promotional videos of events on YouTube Taylor, Like typical tournaments, promotional events are carried out on YouTube as well to advertise pro-gamers based on their gaming expertise Taylor, Branding allows prominent gamers to have a relatively easier time generating income due to their well-established fame from sponsorships and endorsements.