Imagining Russia: Making Feminist Sense of American Nationalism in U.S.–Russian Relations
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They ruled until after World War II when forces of nationalism grew much stronger. In the s and s the colonial holdings became independent states. The process was usually peaceful but there were several long bitter bloody civil wars, as in Algeria,  Kenya  and elsewhere.
Across Africa nationalism drew upon the organizational skills that natives learned in the British and French and other armies in the world wars. It led to organizations that were not controlled by or endorsed by either the colonial powers nor the traditional local power structures that were collaborating with the colonial powers.
Nationalistic organizations began to challenge both the traditional and the new colonial structures and finally displaced them. Leaders of nationalist movements took control when the European authorities exited; many ruled for decades or until they died off. These structures included political, educational, religious, and other social organizations. In recent decades, many African countries have undergone the triumph and defeat of nationalistic fervor, changing in the process the loci of the centralizing state power and patrimonial state. South Africa , a British colony, was exceptional in that it became virtually independent by From to , it was controlled by white Afrikaner nationalists focused on racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid.
The black nationalist movement fought them until success was achieved by the African National Congress in and Nelson Mandela was elected President. Arab nationalism , a movement toward liberating and empowering the Arab peoples of the Middle East, emerged during the latter 19th century, inspired by other independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuries.
As the Ottoman Empire declined and the Middle East was carved up by the Great Powers of Europe, Arabs sought to establish their own independent nations ruled by Arabs rather than foreigners. Syria was established in ; Transjordan later Jordan gradually gained independence between and ; Saudi Arabia was established in ; and Egypt achieved gradually gained independence between and The Arab League was established in to promote Arab interests and cooperation between the new Arab states.
Parallel to these efforts was the Zionist movement which emerged among European Jews in the 19th century.
Kimberly Williams (Author of The Eden Concept)
Beginning in Jews, predominantly from Europe, began emigrating to Ottoman Palestine with the goal of establishing a new Jewish homeland. The effort culminated in the declaration of the State of Israel in As this move conflicted with the belief among Arab nationalists that Palestine was part of the Arab nation, the neighboring Arab nations launched an invasion to claim the region.
The invasion was only partly successful and led to decades of clashes between the Arab and Jewish nationalist ideologies. There was a rise in extreme nationalism after the Revolutions of triggered the collapse of communism in the s. When communism fell, it left many people with no identity. The people under communist rule had to integrate, and they found themselves free to choose.
Given free choice, long dormant conflicts rose up and created sources of serious conflict. In his article Jihad vs.
McWorld, Benjamin Barber proposed that the fall of communism will cause large numbers of people to search for unity and that small scale wars will become common; groups will attempt to redraw boundaries, identities, cultures and ideologies. Academic Steven Berg felt that at the root of nationalist conflicts is the demand for autonomy and a separate existence. The national census numbers for a ten-year span — measured an increase from 1. Within Yugoslavia, separating Croatia and Slovenia from the rest of Yugoslavia is an invisible line of previous conquests of the region.
Croatia and Slovenia to the northwest were conquered by Catholics or Protestants, and benefited from European history; the Renaissance, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and are more inclined towards democracy. In the s the leadership of the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests at the expense of other territories.
In Croatia, there was almost a split within the territory between Serbs and Croats so any political decision would kindle unrest, and tensions could cross the territories adjacent; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Political organizations were not able to deal successfully with such diverse nationalism. Within the territories the leadership could not compromise. To do so would create a winner in one ethnic group and a loser in another, raising the possibility of a serious conflict. This strengthened the political stance promoting ethnic identities.
This caused intense and divided political leadership within Yugoslavia. In the s Yugoslavia began to break into fragments. Conflict in the disputed territories was stimulated by the rise in mass nationalism and inter-ethnic hostilities. This combined with escalating violence from ethnic Albanians and Serbs within Kosovo intensified economic conditions. The ongoing conflict in Kosovo was propagandized by Communist Serbian Slobodan Milosevic to further increase Serb nationalism.
As mentioned, this nationalism did give rise to powerful emotions which grew the force of Serbian nationalism through highly nationalist demonstrations in Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Within Slovenia, fear was mounting because Milosevic was using the militia to suppress a in Kosovo, what would he do to Slovenia.
Russia’s Hard Right Turn
In fall of tensions came to a head and Slovenia asserted its political and economic independence from Yugoslavia and seceded. In January , there was a total break with Serbia at the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, an institution conceived by Milosevic to strengthen unity and became the backdrop for the fall of communism within Yugoslavia.
In August , a warning to the region was issued when ethnically divided groups attempted to alter the government structure. The republic borders established by the Communist regime in the postwar period were extremely vulnerable to challenges from ethnic communities. Ethnic communities arose because they did not share the identity with everyone within the new post-Communist borders.
The same disputes were erupting that were in place prior to Milosevic and were compounded by actions from his regime. Also within the territory the Croats and the Serbs were in direct competition for control of government. Elections were held and increased potential conflicts between Serb and Croat nationalism. Serbia wanted to be separate and decide its own future based on its own ethnic composition.
Chapter 4. Cultural Difference and Political Ideologies
But this would then give Kosovo encouragement to become independent from Serbia. Albanians in Kosovo were already independent from Kosovo. Serbia didn't want to let Kosovo become independent. Muslims nationalists wanted their own territory but it would require a redrawing of the map, and would threaten neighboring territories. When communism fell in Yugoslavia, serious conflict arose, which led to the rise in extreme nationalism. Nationalism again gave rise to powerful emotions which evoked in some extreme cases, a willingness to die for what you believe in, a fight for the survival of the group.
In the six years following the collapse , people died in the Bosnian war. Arab nationalism began to decline in the 21st century leading to localized nationalism, culminating in a series of revolts against authoritarian regimes between and , known as the Arab Spring. Following these revolts, which mostly failed to improve conditions in the affected nations, Arab nationalism and even most local nationalistic movements declined dramatically.
The rise of globalism in the late 20th century led to a rise in nationalism and populism in Europe and North America. This trend was further fueled by increased terrorism in the West the September 11 attacks in the U. In Russia, exploitation of nationalist sentiments allowed Vladimir Putin to consolidate power.
In India, Hindu nationalism has gained ground due to the rise of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Prime Minister Narendra Modi 's closely affiliated Bharatiya Janata Party , emphasizing Hinduism as a guiding principle of the country as opposed to the secular stance taken by India's founders. Hindu Nationalists patronize Hindutva and the members of organization have been involved with several violent crimes against religious minorities of India as well as lower caste Hindus  Militant Buddhist nationalism is on the rise in Myanmar , Thailand and Sri Lanka.
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom was held on 18 September The proposal was defeated, with In a referendum , the British populace voted to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union the so-called Brexit. The result had been largely unexpected and was seen as a victory of populism. As the promise of continued EU membership was a core feature of the pro-unionist campaign during the Scottish referendum, the months since the EU Referendum vote have seen renewed calls for a second referendum on Scottish independence. The U. Trump's slogans " Make America Great Again " and " America First " exemplified his campaign's repudiation of globalism and its staunchly nationalistic outlook.
His unexpected victory in the election was seen as part of the same trend that had brought about the Brexit vote. Ted Cruz who was once an adversary.